Distemper, Adenovirus, Parainfluenza, & Parvovirus

Overview

Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae.1 CDV not only affects domestic and wild dogs worldwide, but a wide range of other hosts in the wild, in addition to domestic Ferrets.2 CDV is transmitted via aerosolized respiratory secretions of infected animals causing fever, respiratory distress, and other complications which may lead to neurologic impairment and death.3 Vaccination is considered highly successful in contributing to lower CDV prevalence in areas where routine vaccination programs are adhered to.4

Canine Adenovirus (CAV)

Canine adenovirus Type-1 (CAV-1) is the cause of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH), while canine adenovirus Type-2 (CAV-2) can cause or contribute to canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), commonly referred to as Kennel Cough. ICH is transmitted via ingestion of infected bodily secretions, resulting in vomiting, abdominal pain, and (often bloody) diarrhea. Sudden death can occur in severely affected dogs.5 Vaccines for CAV-2 also provide protection against CAV-1, and has shown to have contributed to a decrease in incidence of ICH.6

Canine Parainfluenza Virus (CPiV)

Canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV), also a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is closely related to CDV, and is also referred to as parainfluenza virus 5 (PV5), and previously simian virus 5 (SV5),7 for its close relationship to human and simian parainfluenza viruses.9 Additionally, CPiV is primarily associated with Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), commonly referred to as Kennel Cough.10

Canine Parvovirus (CPV)

Canine parvovirus (CPV) belongs to the feline parvovirus subgroup in the genus Parvovirus.11 Strains of the virus, particularly CPV-2, cause a highly contagious and potentially fatal disease marked by (often bloody) diarrhea, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting and other varying signs of illness. Testing for Parvovirus, as part of our in-house Laboratory service, indicates the presence of CPV antigen from strain CPV-1, and strain CPV-2 (including 2a, 2b, and 2c).12

Parvoviruses are particularly resistant to temperature extremes, where they are able to survive subzero temperatures for up to one year,13 and as high as 158° F for at least 30 minutes.14 Moreover, parvoviruses are able to survive for up to five (5) months on inanimate objects at normal temperatures,14 and even longer outdoors if protected from sunlight and other drying conditions.13

Testing Requirements

Testing for Canine Parvovirus is required if a veterinarian suspects your dog may have the disease. Due to the resilience and relatively high level of communicability of parvoviruses, and because diagnosis based on often varying symptoms alone can prove difficult; testing is performed with the health safety of your and all our other canine patients in mind (those of both our other clients and our staff). This allows our veterinarians to pursue an appropriate treatment plan for your dog, while we implement a hospital and staff decontamination protocol to minimize the possibility of transmitting the virus to (an)other patient(s).

Vaccination

Distemper, adenovirus [Type-2], parainfluenza, and parvovirus (DA2PP) are components of the first of two core dog vaccines, the second of which is for Leptospirosis. The vaccine for DA2PP is administered according to the following schedule, which may be modified depending on your dog’s prior vaccination history:

Schedule Vaccine
Eight (8) Weeks Initial Canine DA2PP Vaccination
12 Weeks Second Canine DA2PP Vaccination
16 Weeks Third Canine DA2PP Vaccination
One (1) Year Later Canine DA2PP Vaccine Booster
Every Three (3) Years Thereafter Canine DA2PP Vaccine Booster
Notice

DA2PP vaccines are administered in series. It is important not to miss the booster of your dog’s first vaccines, as this may necessitate restarting the series.

Either period between the first three vaccinations should not exceed three (3) to four (4) weeks; if either period exceeds six (6) weeks (42 days), the series must be restarted.

References

  1. ^ Greene CE, Vandevelde M. Canine Distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012: 25.
  2. ^ Greene CE, Vandevelde M. Canine Distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012: 26 (3-1t).
  3. ^ Vandevelde M, Zurbriggen A. The neurobiology of canine distemper virus infection. Vet Microbiol. 1995; 44(2–4): 271–280.
  4. ^ Greene CE, Vandevelde M. Canine Distemper. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012: 38.
  5. ^ Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012: 43.
  6. ^ Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders; 2010: 962.
  7. ^ Chatziandreou N, Stock N, Young D, et al. Relationships and host range of human, canine, simian and porcine isolated of simian virus 5 (parainfluenza virus 5). J Gen Virol. October 2004; 85(10): 3007-3016. doi:10.1099/vir.0.80200-0.
  8. ^ Greene CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012: 65.
  9. ^ Binn LN, Eddy GA, Lazar EC, et al. Viruses recovered from laboratory dogs with respiratory disease. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. October 1967; 126(1): 140-145.
  10. ^ Truyen U. Evolution of canine parvovirus—a need for new vaccines? Vet Microbiol. October 5, 2006; 117(1): 9-13.
  11. ^ SNAP Parvo Test Frequently Asked Questions. Westbrook, ME: IDEXX Laboratories; 2014. https://idexx.com/files/small-animal-health/products-and-services/snap-products/snap-parvo/snap-parvo-test-faqs.pdf.
  12. ^ a b Gordon JC, Angrick EJ. Canine parvovirus: environmental effects on infectivity. Am J Vet Res. July 1986; 47(7): 1464-1467.
  13. ^ a b Greene CE, Decaro N. Canine Viral Enteritis. In: Greene CE. (Ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2012: 75.